Plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) can both harbor t(11;14)(q13;q32) (CCND1/IGH), usually resulting in cyclin D1 overexpression. In some cases, particularly at low levels of disease, it can be morphologically challenging to distinguish between these entities in the bone marrow (BM) since PCN with t(11;14) are often CD20-positive with lymphoplasmacytic cytology, while MCL can rarely have plasmacytic differentiation. We compared the difference in CCND1/IGH by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in PCN and MCL to evaluate for possible differentiating characteristics. We identified 326 cases of MCL with t(11;14) and 279 cases of PCN with t(11;14) from either formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue or fresh BM specimens. The “typical,” balanced CCND1/IGH FISH signal pattern was defined as three total CCND1 signals, three total IGH signals, and two total fusion signals. Any deviation from the “typical” pattern was defined as an “atypical” pattern, which was further stratified into “gain of fusion” vs “complex” patterns. There was a significantly higher proportion of cases that showed an atypical FISH pattern in PCN compared with MCL (53% vs 27%, P <.0001). There was also a significantly higher proportion of cases that showed a complex FISH pattern in PCN compared with MCL (47% vs 17%, P <.0001). We confirmed these findings using mate-pair sequencing of 25 PCN and MCL samples. PCN more often have a complex CCND1/IGH FISH pattern compared with MCL, suggesting possible differences in the genomic mechanisms underlying these rearrangements in plasma cells compared with B cells.
- fluorescence in situ hybridization
- mantle cell lymphoma
- mate-pair sequencing
- next-generation sequencing
- plasma cell neoplasms