Increased basal nitric oxide amplifies the association of inflammation with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients

Ilia Beberashvili*, Inna Sinuani, Ada Azar, Hadas Kadoshi, Gregory Shapiro, Leonid Feldman, Judith Sandbank, Zhan Averbukh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that the basal nitric oxide (NO) levels in prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients may associate with inflammatory cytokines, predisposing them to increased mortality risk. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of 76 prevalent HD patients (42 % women), with a mean age of 65.3 ± 11.8 years with a follow-up for almost 4 years (median - 47 months, interquartile range -19-75 months). We measured basal NO, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10), dietary intake, biochemical parameters of nutrition, and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis). Results: Among various cytokines studied, only IL-6 exhibited a statistically significant linear association (adjusted r = 0.31, p = 0.014) with NO. Statistical interaction analysis showed a departure from multiplicity of effects of high NO (above the median) with high IL-6 (above the median) levels: crude Cox hazard ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality for the product termed IL-6 × NO were 2.73 with a 95 % CI of 1.38-5.40 (p = 0.004) and 5.03 with a 95 % CI of 1.76-14.40 (p = 0.003), respectively. Across the four IL-6 NO categories, the group with high IL-6 and high NO (above their median levels) exhibited worse outcomes in both, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 3.06, 95 % CI of 1.24-7.54 and 3.95, 95 % CI of 1.02-15.32, respectively). Conclusions: Chronic inflammation, as measured by higher serum IL-6 levels, in combination with high basal NO is associated with worse clinical outcomes in terms of all-cause and cardiovascular death in clinically stable prevalent HD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1703-1713
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Urology and Nephrology
Volume45
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2013

Keywords

  • Hemodialysis
  • IL-6
  • Inflammation
  • Nitric oxide
  • Survival

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