Background A large-scale increase in microRNA (miRNA) expression was observed in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent pouch surgery and developed inflammation of the pouch (pouchitis). In this study, we assessed miRNA expression in these patients and investigated how regulation of its expression changes in the setting of pouchitis. Methods Autologous samples that included mucosal biopsies, peripheral blood cells, and plasma were collected from the patients. Candidate primary and mature miRNA expressions were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A human intestinal epithelial cell line was used to test DICER activity, and the expression of key miRNA processing factors was analyzed by Western blot. miRNA-424 and its potential target serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) expressions were examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot in human pouch tissues and in a human intestinal epithelial cell line stimulated with inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and INF-3. Results Candidate miRNA expression and protein expression of DICER-1, EXPORTIN-5, and AGO-2 were increased in association with pouch inflammation. Similarly, inflammatory cytokines increased protein expression of DICER-1, EXPORTIN-5, and AGO-2 and DICER activity in the epithelial cell line. The miRNA-424 expression increased whereas SERT expression decreased in the patients' mucosa. Similarly, incubation of the epithelial cell line with inflammatory cytokines resulted in increased miRNA-424 and decreased SERT mRNA and protein expression. Conclusions The miRNA expression and processing are augmented in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of patients with pouchitis. These alterations are accompanied by increased expression of proteins involved in miRNA processing, suggesting that pouch inflammation contributes to miRNA processing and expression.
- Crohn's disease
- ulcerative colitis