In situ product removal (ISPR) is the fast removal of product from a producing cell thereby preventing its subsequent interference with cellular or medium components. Over the past 10 years ISPR techniques have developed substantially and its feasibility (with improvements in yield or productivity) for several processes demonstrated. Assessment of progress, however, compared to the potential benefits inherent in the ISPR approach to bioprocessing reveals that these are far from being exploited fully. Here we indicate future directions including application of the ISPR approach to a wider range of product groups and the development of novel, more specific ISPR methodologies, applicable under sterile conditions in the immediate vicinity of the producing cells. General guidelines for adaptation of an appropriate ISPR approach for a given product are also provided.