Implantation failure, etiology, diagnosis and treatment

Yoel Shufaro*, Joseph G. Schenker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Embryonic implantation is a complex interaction between the embryo and the endometrium. Despite great investigative effort this process is still obscure. Contrary to the great advancement in patient care, follicular recruitment, oocyte quality and aspiration, embryo quality, culture and cryopreservation, our understanding of the implantation process did not enhance as much, and the tools to intervene within this process are limited. The implantation of the transferred embryos still remains the major limiting factor in IVF. Here we will review the current literature on the maternal (uterine, hematologic, immunologic and others) and embryonic factors that are associated with repeated implantation failure (RIF) and describe the various therapeutic approaches to cope with them. In addition, we will present our conclusive recommendations on how to investigate and manage RIF based on the literature and our own experience.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Infertility and Fetal Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Implantation
  • In vitro fertilization
  • Repeated implantation failure


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