Extensive liver resections are common, and bleeding is frequent in these operations. Impaired regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) may contribute to liver failure. We thus assessed the impact of acute bleeding on the liver regeneration progress after PHx and explored possible contributing molecular mechanisms. In rats, the regeneration progress was delayed and attenuated with PHx and bleeding and was not restored with colloid resuscitation. Livers restored their initial volume by postoperative day (POD) 2 after PHx through hepatocyte proliferation vs. POD 4 in the PHx and bleeding group, primarily by hepatocyte hypertrophy. With bleeding, hepatocyte proliferation was hindered in two mechanisms: by inhibiting cells from starting proliferation and by causing hindrance in G1/S progression. Liver hypoxia was prominent, with significant prolonged up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) and HIF-targeted genes only in the PHx and bleeding group. Gene expression profiling revealed alterations in numerous genes that belong to critical pathways, including cell cycle, DNA replication, PI3K-Akt, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism. Because liver surgery is frequently performed in patients with a predamaged liver, an improper regenerative process after PHx and bleeding might lead to decompensation. The results hint at specific pathways to target in order to improve liver regeneration during PHx and bleeding.
- Hypoxia-inducible factor
- Liver failure