Impaired Inhibitory Control during Walking in Parkinson's Disease Patients: An EEG Study

Ronen Sosnik*, Shani Danziger-Schragenheim, Daniel Possti, Firas Fahoum, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman, Inbal Maidan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The performance on a visual Go/NoGo (VGNG) task during walking has been used to evaluate the effect of gait on response inhibition in young and older adults; however, no work has yet included Parkinson's disease (PD) patients for whom such changes may be even more enhanced. Objective: In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of gait on automatic and cognitive inhibitory control phases in PD patients and the associated changes in neural activity and compared them with young and older adults. Methods: 30 PD patients, 30 older adults, and 11 young adults performed a visual Go/NoGo task in a sitting position and during walking on a treadmill while their EEG activity and gait were recorded. Brain electrical activity was evaluated by the amplitude, latency, and scalp distribution of N2 and P300 event related potentials. Mix model analysis was used to examine group and condition effects on task performance and brain activity. Results: The VGNG accuracy rates in PD patients during walking were lower than in young and older adults (F = 5.619, p = 0.006). For all groups, N2 latency during walking was significantly longer than during sitting (p = 0.013). In addition, P300 latency was significantly longer in PD patients (p < 0.001) and older adults (p = 0.032) during walking compared to sitting and during 'NoGo' trials compared with 'Go' trials. Moreover, the young adults showed the smallest number of electrodes for which a significant differential activation between sit to walk was observed, while PD patients showed the largest with N2 being more strongly manifested in bilateral parietal electrodes during walking and in frontocentral electrodes while seated. Conclusion: The results show that response inhibition during walking is impaired in older subjects and PD patients and that increased cognitive load during dual-task walking relates to significant change in scalp electrical activity, mainly in parietal and frontocentral channels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-256
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Parkinson's Disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


FundersFunder number
Fugelnest foundation


    • EEG
    • Parkinson's disease
    • dual task
    • gait
    • inhibitory control


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