Objectives Recent literature shows a greater risk for adverse clinical outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events in women undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially in young and diabetic patients. We aimed to assess the impact of sex on clinical results following ACS.
Methods From our database of all-comer PCI patients, between 1 April 2004 and 31 December 2011, the procedural and angiographic results and clinical outcomes up to 5 years of 5819 patients with ACS undergoing emergent PCI were analyzed and compared according to sex.
Results A total of 1425 (24.5%) of the patients were women. They presented at an older age (72.7 ± 11.3 vs. 65.2 12.3 years, P<0.001), and more had diabetes mellitus (46.7 vs. 40.0%, P < 0.001) and previous heart failure (12.1 vs. 7.26%, P=0.001). Mortality (21.63 vs. 13.22% at 5 years, P< 0.001) and combined endpoints of death, myocardial infarction, and target-vessel revascularization (30.72 vs. 24.65% at 5 years, P<0.001) were higher in women. In a multivariate analysis using age, previous diabetes, heart failure, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, baseline glomerular filtration rate, presentation with STelevation myocardial infarction, and proximal left anterior descending artery disease, female sex was no longer an independent predictor of outcomes. No sex differences in mortality or major adverse cardiac events were observed in young or diabetic patients.
Conclusion Our results show no sex differences in clinical endpoints among ACS patients undergoing PCI after correction for advanced age and comorbidities. Importantly, no differences were found in patients with diabetes mellitus or those younger than 60 years of age. This may reflect the importance of the administration of evidence-based therapeutics in women.
- acute coronary syndrome
- percutaneous coronary intervention