Impact of clade diversity on HIV-1 virulence, antiretroviral drug sensitivity and drug resistance

Shalom Spira, Mark A. Wainberg*, Hugues Loemba, Dan Turner, Bluma G. Brenner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


HIV-1 infection is characterized by genetic diversity wherein distinct viral subtypes (clades A, B, C, D, E, F, G, K and O) are expanding in different geographical regions. This article deals with the topic of HIV-1 subtype diversity in the context of sensitivity to antiretroviral drugs, drug resistance and viral fitness. Increasing evidence suggests that all clades of HIV probably display similar sensitivity to antiviral drugs. However, viruses from some subtypes and/or geographical regions may have a greater propensity to develop resistance against certain drugs than do other viral variants. In addition, differences in regard to replication capacity or fitness may exist among various HIV subtypes and differences in this regard may potentially become magnified under conditions of drug resistance. Immunological pressures may also play an important role in the evolution of viral subtypes that may impact on ultimate drug resistance profiles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-240
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Clade
  • HIV
  • Resistance


Dive into the research topics of 'Impact of clade diversity on HIV-1 virulence, antiretroviral drug sensitivity and drug resistance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this