Impact of BNT162b2 Vaccination and Isolation on SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Israeli Households: An Observational Study

Maylis Layan, Mayan Gilboa, Tal Gonen, Miki Goldenfeld, Lilac Meltzer, Alessio Andronico, Nathanaël Hozé, Simon Cauchemez, Gili Regev-Yochay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Several studies have characterized the effectiveness of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. However, estimates of their impact on transmissibility remain limited. Here, we evaluated the impact of isolation and vaccination (7 days after the second dose) on SARS-CoV-2 transmission within Israeli households. From December 2020 to April 2021, confirmed cases were identified among health-care workers of the Sheba Medical Centre and their family members. Recruited households were followed up with repeated PCR for at least 10 days after case confirmation. Data were analyzed using a data augmentation Bayesian framework. A total of 210 households with 215 index cases were enrolled; 269 out of 667 (40%) susceptible household contacts developed a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of those, 170 (63%) developed symptoms. Compared with unvaccinated and unisolated adult/teenager (aged >12 years) contacts, vaccination reduced the risk of infection among unisolated adult/teenager contacts (relative risk (RR) = 0.21, 95% credible interval (CrI): 0.08, 0.44), and isolation reduced the risk of infection among unvaccinated adult/teenager (RR = 0.12, 95% CrI: 0.06, 0.21) and child contacts (RR = 0.17, 95% CrI: 0.08, 0.32). Infectivity was reduced in vaccinated cases (RR = 0.25, 95% CrI: 0.06, 0.77). Within households, vaccination reduces both the risk of infection and of transmission if infected. When contacts were unvaccinated, isolation also led to important reductions in the risk of transmission.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1224-1234
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Volume191
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 27 Jun 2022

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • household
  • infectious disease transmission
  • physical distancing
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccination
  • vaccine effectiveness

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