Immune responses to Tilapia lake virus infection: what we know and what we don’t know

Japhette E. Kembou-Ringert*, Dieter Steinhagen, Kim D. Thompson, Janet M. Daly, Mikolaj Adamek*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a novel contagious pathogen associated with a lethal disease affecting and decimating tilapia populations on several continents across the globe. Fish viral diseases, such as Tilapia lake virus disease (TiLVD), represent a serious threat to tilapia aquaculture. Therefore, a better understanding of the innate immune responses involved in establishing an antiviral state can help shed light on TiLV disease pathogenesis. Moreover, understanding the adaptive immune mechanisms involved in mounting protection against TiLV could greatly assist in the development of vaccination strategies aimed at controlling TiLVD. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the immune responses following TiLV infection. After describing the main pathological findings associated with TiLVD, both the innate and adaptive immune responses and mechanisms to TiLV infection are discussed, in both disease infection models and in vitro studies. In addition, our work, highlights research questions, knowledge gaps and research areas in the immunology of TiLV infection where further studies are needed to better understand how disease protection against TiLV is established.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1240094
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • adaptive immunity
  • antiviral response
  • host immune resistance
  • immune subversion
  • immunity
  • innate immunity
  • Tilapia lake virus


Dive into the research topics of 'Immune responses to Tilapia lake virus infection: what we know and what we don’t know'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this