Immune checkpoint inhibitors–related encephalitis in melanoma and non-melanoma cancer patients: a single center experience

A. Taliansky*, O. Furman, M. Gadot, D. Urban, J. Bar, R. Shapira-Frumer, B. Kaufman, N. Asher, R. Leibowitz-Amit, A. Itay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has greatly improved survival for patients with a number of malignant diseases in recent years. Neurological immune-related adverse events (n-irAE) of varying severity have been reported in the literature. We aimed to identify the incidence of n-irAE, focusing on immune-related encephalitis (IRE), in patients treated with ICI for multiple non-hematological malignancies in our institution. Methods: All patients with histologically verified cancer that received treatment with ICI at the Sheba Medical Center between January 2017 and August 2019 were surveyed. Medical records for each patient were reviewed and information regarding n-irAE was recorded. Results: In total, 1993 patients were included. Eleven cases of IRE were recorded, affecting 0.55% of patients overall, eight had non-melanoma cancer. Eight patients had made a full recovery. Conclusions: IRE is a n-irAE more frequent than previously reported, particularly in non-melanoma patients. The diagnostic criteria and optimal treatment needs to be determined. ICI re-challenge after IRE can be considered for selected patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7563-7568
Number of pages6
JournalSupportive Care in Cancer
Volume29
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Autoimmune encephalitis
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitor adverse event
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitor–related encephalitis

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