Gastroesophageal reflux disease has a variable presentation on upper endoscopy. Gastroesophageal reflux disease can be divided into 3 endoscopic categories: Barrett's esophagus, erosive esophagitis, and normal mucosa/nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). Each of these phenotypes behave in a distinct manner, in regards to symptom response to treatment, and risk of development of complications such as esophageal adenocarcinoma. Recently, it has been proposed to further differentiate NERD into 2 categories: those with and those without "minimal changes." These minimal changes include endoscopic abnormalities, such as villous mucosal surface, mucosal islands, microerosions, and increased vascularity at the squamocolumnar junction. Although some studies have shown that patients with minimal changes may have higher rates of esophageal acid exposure compared with those without minimal changes, it is currently unclear if these patients behave differently than those currently categorized as having NERD. The clinical utility of identifying these lesions should be weighed against the cost of the requisite equipment and the additional time required for diagnosis, compared with conventional white light endoscopy.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- minimal changes
- nonerosive reflux disease (NERD)