Carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamases are the most powerful β-lactamases, being able to hydrolyse almost all β-lactams. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern, as these carbapenemase producers are multidrug-resistant. Detection of infected patients and of carriers are the two main approaches for prevention of their spread. Phenotypic and molecular-based techniques are able to identify these carbapenemase producers, although with variable efficiencies. The detection of carriers still relies mostly on the use of screening culture media.