The gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is the causal agent of spot disease in tomato and pepper. Plants of the tomato line Hawaii 7981 are resistant to race T3 of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria expressing the type III effector protein AvrXv3 and develop a typical hypersensitive response upon bacterial challenge. A combination of suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis identified a large set of cDNAs that are induced or repressed during the resistance response of Hawaii 7981 plants to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria T3 bacteria. Sequence analysis of the isolated cDNAs revealed that they correspond to 426 nonredundant genes, which were designated as XRE (Xanthomonas-regulated) genes and were classified into more than 20 functional classes. The largest functional groups contain genes involved in defense, stress responses, protein synthesis, signaling, and photosynthesis. Analysis of XRE expression kinetics during the tomato resistance response to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria T3 revealed six clusters of genes with coordinate expression. In addition, by using isogenic X. campestris pv. vesicatoria T2 strains differing only by the avrXv3 avirulence gene, we found that 77% of the identified XRE genes were directly modulated by expression of the AvrXv3 effector protein. Interestingly, 64% of the XRE genes were also induced in tomato during an incompatible interaction with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. The identification and expression analysis of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria T3-modulated genes, which may be involved in the control or in the execution of plant defense responses, set the stage for the dissection of signaling and cellular responses activated in tomato plants during the onset of spot disease resistance.