Purpose: To test potential protection by ICRF-187 against cumulative doxorubicin-dose-related cardiac toxicity, we conducted a randomized clinical trial in 150 women with advanced breast cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients received fluorouracil (5FU) 500 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 every 21 days intravenously (IV) (control regimen, 74 patients), or the same regimen preceded by ICRF-187 1,000 mg/m2 IV (experimental regimen, 76 patients). Results: We previously reported that ICRF-187 in this dose and schedule provides cardiac protection and does not substantially alter the noncardiac toxicity or antitumor efficacy of the control regimen. In this updated analysis of the entire patient cohort, we provide additional support for these findings and demonstrate that patients in the ICRF-187 group received more cycles (median, 11) and higher cumulative doses (median, 500 mg/m2) of doxorubicin than patients in the control group (median, nine cycles, P < .01; and 441 mg/m2, P < .05). Twenty-six patients in the ICRF-187 group received doxorubicin doses of at least 700 mg/m2, and among them, 11 patients received 1,000 mg/m2 or more. Only three patients in the control group received doxorubicin doses of 700 mg/m2; the maximum dose administered to one patient in this group was 950 mg/m2. ICRF-187 cardiac protection was demonstrated by difference in incidence of clinical congestive heart failure (CHF; two patients in the ICRF-187 group v 20 in the control group; P < .0001) and by differences in resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) determined by multigated radionuclide (MUGA) scan from baselines and that required patient removal from study (five patients in the ICRF-187 group had a decrease in LVEF to < 0.45 or a decrease from the baseline LVEF of 0.20 or more v 32 in the control group; P < .000001). Among the 30 patients who had an assessable endomyocardial biopsy at cumulative doxorubicin 450 mg/m2, none of 16 in the ICRF-187 group and six of 14 in the control group had a score of 2 (P < .05). ICRF-187 cardiac protection was observed in patients with and without prior chest-wall radiation or other risk factors for developing doxorubicin cardiac toxicity. Conclusion: By protecting against cumulative doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity, ICRF-187 permits significantly greater doses of doxorubicin to be administered to patients with greater safety.