The polemic over the resurrection of the dead thrived through the first centuries of the Common Era. It is a unique example of a similar opinion held by both Jews and Christians and defended in similar ways against various pagan opponents. These similarities are important not only as historical evidence to the ties between Jews and Christians in late antiquity, but also as a tool for solving literary and philological problems in both Jewish and Christian sources. The Babylonian Talmud preserved two versions of a polemic stance defending the belief in resurrection. A comparison to early Christian sources shows that these versions are not two adaptations of one statement, but rather two independent positions, responding to pagans claims denying the resurrection of the body. It thus provides us with a tool for solving an enigma in the development of the Talmudic text, and adds to our understanding of some of the ways the Talmudic text evolved.