Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in childhood. Although hyponatremia was described in ~ 2/3 of these children, its clinical significance is still unclear. Herein, we evaluated the prevalence and clinical implications of hyponatremia in children hospitalized with a UTI. Medical records of previously healthy children hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2016 with UTI were retrospectively reviewed. Patients (median age 5.5 months) were divided into two groups according to their sodium levels: normonatremia (Na ≥ 135 mEq/L) and hyponatremia (Na < 135 mEq/L). Hyponatremia diagnosed on admission was found in 114/219 children (49%). Hyponatremic patients experienced a more severe disease manifested by a longer hospital stay (3.8 vs 3.4 days, p = 0.003), a higher prevalence of abnormal findings on renal ultrasound (10 vs 2, p = 0.01), higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (8.6 vs 3.4 mg/dl, p = <0.001), and a negative correlation between sodium levels and CRP (r = − 0.38, p < 0.001). Conclusion:Hyponatremia occurs frequently in children hospitalized with UTI and is associated with elevated inflammatory markers and a more severe disease course.What is Known:• Hyponatremia, one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities, occurs in approximately 1/3 of hospitalized children and in 2/3 of children with pyelonephritis.• In certain cases of various medical conditions, hyponatremia has been shown to correlate with disease severity.What is New:• Hyponatremia in hospitalized children with UTI correlates with elevated inflammatory markers and a more severe disease course.
- Low sodium levels