Hyperphosphatemia is required for initiation but not propagation of kidney failure-induced calcific aortic valve disease

Mony Shuvy, Suzan Abedat, Ran Eliaz, Israa Abu-Rmeileh, Asmahan Abu-Snieneh, Iddo Z. Ben-Dov, Karen Meir, David Pereg, Ronen Beeri, Chaim Lotan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

High serum levels of phosphate are associated with uremia-induced calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, it is not clear whether hyperphosphatemia is required in all phases of the process. Our aim was to determine the effects of phosphate and phosphate depletion at different phases of valve disease. The experimental design consisted of administering a uremia-inducing diet, with or without phosphate enrichment, to rats for 7 wk. Forty-two rats were fed with a phosphate-enriched uremic regimen that caused renal insufficiency and hyperphosphatemia. Another 42 rats were fed with a phosphate-depleted uremic regimen, which induces similar severity of renal insufficiency, but without its related mineral disorder. Aortic valves were evaluated at several points during the time of diet administration. In the second part, additional 54 rats were fed a phosphate-enriched diet for various time periods and were then switched to a phosphate-depleted diet to complete 7 wk of uremic diet. Osteoblast-like phenotype, inflammation, and eventually valve calcification were observed only in rats that were fed with a phosphate-enriched regimen. Significant valve calcification was observed only in rats that were fed a phosphate-enriched diet for at least 4 wk. Valve calcification was observed only when the switch to a phosphate-depleted regimen occurred after osteoblast markers and activation of Akt and ERK intracellular signaling pathways had already been found in the valve. Phosphate is essential for the initiation of the calcification process. However, when osteoblast markers are already expressed in valve tissue, phosphate depletion will not halt the disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY High serum levels of phosphate are associated with uremia-induced calcific aortic valve disease. However, it is not clear whether hyperphosphatemia is required in all phases of the process. Our aim was to determine the effects of phosphate and phosphate depletion at different phases of valve disease. Our findings indicated that phosphate is essential for the initiation of the process that includes macrophage accumulation and osteoblast phenotype. Furthermore, hyperphosphatemia is dispensable beyond a certain phase of the process, a point of "no return" after which phosphate depletion does not prevent calcification. This point is relatively early in the course of calcification, when no calcification is apparent, but the inflammation, osteoblast markers, and activation of ERK and Akt pathways have already been identified. Our findings emphasize the complexity of the calcification process and suggest that different mediators might be required during different phases and that the role of phosphate precedes the actual calcification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H695-H704
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume317
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Calcific aortic valve disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Phosphate

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