Oral pulse therapy with vitamin D is effective in suppressing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (2'hpt). However, this treatment often leads to hypercalcemia. The goals of the study were: (1) to examine whether the incidence of hypercalcemia decreases when dialysate calcium is reduced from 1.25 to 1.0 mmol/L; (2) to determine the relative role of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of hypercalcemia; and (3) to study the efficacy of a low oral pulse dose of alfacalcidol in preventing the recurrence of 2'hpt. Fourteen continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with 2'hpt were treated with pulse oral alfacalcidol and calcium carbonate and dialyzed with a 1.0-mmol (n = 7) or a 1.25-mmol (n = 7) dialysate calcium. The response rate (87%) and the incidence (71%) and severity of hypercalcemia were similar in both groups. In the early response stage, PTH decreased by 70% in both groups, and serum ionized calcium (iCa) increased from 1.18 ± 0.02 to 1.27 ± 0.04 mmol/L (P < 0.005) in the 1.0 group and from 1.19 ± 0.02 to 1.29 ± 0.02 mmol/L in the 1.25 group (P < 0.005). Nine of the 12 responders had a further decrease in serum PTH, which was associated with an additional increase in iCa from 1.28 ± 0.02 to 1.47 ± 0.04 (P < 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that the early increase in iCa was positively correlated with alfacalcidol dosage (r = 0.69). In contrast, the late increase in iCa was mostly accounted for by the decrease in serum PTH (r = -0.93). This occurred while calcium carbonate, alfacalcidol dosage, and serum 1,25 hydroxy D3 remained unchanged compared with the early response stage. Finally, an alfacalcidol dose of 1 μg twice weekly was unable to maintain serum PTH at an adequate level in the long term. These data show that a reduction in dialysate calcium from 1.25 to 1.0 mmol does not reduce the occurrence of hypercalcemia and suggest that lowering serum PTH reduces the ability of the bone to handle a calcium load within a few weeks, thus causing hypercalcemia.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN|
|State||Published - Oct 1997|