A case of cerebral air embolism sustained during replacement of the mitral valve resulted in postoperative coma and seizures. Hyperbaric treatment, begun 30 hours after the occurrence of the air embolism, resulted in good immediate and long-term recovery. Mild deficits of the left hemisphere were present at follow-up 53 days after the embolus was sustained, and lesser, minimal residua were present at 14-month follow-up. Hyperbaric treatment is the definitive therapy for cerebral air embolism. Although it is most effective when administered early, the outcome may be excellent even with late treatment.