This study examined whether the soluble 66 and 51 kDa tumor-associated antigens (sTAA) could promote suppression by the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) of chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis, and which, if any, morphological changes in the immune organs accompany this treatment. Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA, 8 mg/rat, twice) was used to induce mammary tumors. After the appearance of many large tumors, the preparations of sTAA and 5-Fu, alone or in combination, were administered in weekly doses, for 4 weeks. The following groups of mammary tumor-bearing rats were studied: 1) control non treated rats, 2) rats treated with sTAA, 3) rats treated with 5-Fu, 4) rats treated with 5-Fu and sTAA. The experiment was terminated when tumors in 70% of control rats became ulcerous. Treatment with sTAA alone significantly decreased tumor yield and their total area relative to controls. Both of these parameters showed an even larger significant decrease after treatment with 5-Fu, and the most marked decrease was obtained after the combined treatment with 5-Fu and sTAA. Results demonstrated that not only do sTAA have tumor-suppressive properties, they also enhance the anticancer effects of 5-Fu and prevent its toxic side effects. Morphologically, the treatment with sTAA was manifested in a significant increase in the size of the spleen follicles and mantle layer compared to control rats with large tumors. The treatment with 5-Fu decreased the sizes of almost all areas of the spleen compared to control rats, whereas the combined treatment with 5-Fu and sTAA increased all these parameters to the levels found in rats treated with sTAA alone. The total areas of the cortex and paracortex in the lymph nodes increased after treatment with sTAA. Treatment with 5-Fu alone resulted in a significant decrease of these areas which, as seen in the spleen, increased after combined treatment with 5-Fu and sTAA. Similar changes were seen in the areas of the separate lymph node zones. We concluded that the addition of sTAA to conventional tumor chemotherapy regimens has a remarkable synergistic effect on mammary tumors leading to curative antitumor responses of the host's immune organs.