Cognitive decline, the primary clinical phenotype of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is currently attributed mainly to amyloid and tau protein deposits. However, a growing body of evidence is converging on brain lipids, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, as crucial players involved in AD development. The critical role of lipids metabolism in the brain and its vascular barrier, and its constant modifications particularly throughout AD development, warrants investigation of brain lipid metabolism as a high value therapeutic target. Yet, there is limited knowledge on the biochemical and structural roles of lipids in BBB functionality in AD. Within this framework, we hypothesize that the ApoE4 genotype, strongly linked to AD risk and progression, may be related to altered fatty acids composition in the BBB. Interestingly, alpha linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor of the majoritarian brain component docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), emerges as a potential novel brain savior, acting via BBB functional improvements, and this may be primarily relevant to ApoE4 carriers.
- Alzheimer’s dementia
- Alzheimer’s disease
- alpha linolenic acid
- blood–brain barrier
- cardiocerebrovascular diseases
- fatty acids
- vascular cognitive impairment