Objective: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare side effect related to sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2I). This study investigated the incidence of people with diabetes hospitalized because of DKA after the implementation of SGLT2I (2015-2019), compared with the pre-SGLT2I era. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records of all adult patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of DKA in a tertiary referral center from 2011-2019 were reviewed. The incidence of DKA was compared between the periods 2011-2014 and 2015-2019. Demographic and clinical data of patients hospitalized with DKA as well as SGLT2I use were extracted. Results: During 2011-2019, there were 186 hospitalizations because of DKA. The rate of hospitalization was stable during 2011-2019 at 0.22% ± 0.04% (95% CI, 0.18-0.25). The clinical characteristics of people hospitalized with DKA in 2011-2014 were similar to those of people hospitalized during 2015-2019. Only 7 people (6.1%) in the 2015-2019 cohort had SGLT2I-related DKA, and their clinical characteristics were similar to those of the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: The rate of hospitalizations because of DKA remained stable before and 5 years after SGLT2I were implemented for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Larger, multi-institutional studies with longer follow-ups are needed to study the effect of SGLT2I on the rate of hospitalizations because of DKA among people with diabetes. Although DKA events associated with SGLT2I are rare, they should be strongly considered in the differential diagnosis of people treated with these medications.
- clinical pharmacology
- diabetes mellitus
- diabetic ketoacidosis
- sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors