Hospital-Onset Bloodstream Infections Caused by Eight Sentinel Bacteria: A Nationwide Study in Israel, 2018–2019

Amir Nutman*, Liat Wullfhart, Elizabeth Temkin, Sarah F. Feldman, Vered Schechner, Mitchell J. Schwaber, Yehuda Carmeli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nationwide studies on hospital-onset bloodstream infections (HO-BSIs) are scarce. To de-scribe incidence, mortality and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of HO-BSI caused by eight sentinel bacteria in Israel, we used laboratory-based BSI surveillance data from 1 January 2018 to 31 Decem-ber 2019. All hospitals reported positive blood cultures growing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumo-niae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. We calculated HO-BSI incidence and 14-day, 30-day and 1-year mortality in adults. We performed multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of 30-day mortality. The study included 6752 HO-BSI events: K. pneumoniae (1659, 22.1%), E. coli (1491, 19.8%), S. aureus (1315, 17.5%), P. aeruginosa (1175, 15.6%), E. faecalis (778, 10.4%), A. baumannii (654, 8.7%), E. faecium (405, 5.4%) and S. pneumoniae (43, 0.6%). Overall incidence was 2.84/1000 admissions (95% CI: 2.77–2.91) and 6.88/10,000 patient-days (95% CI: 6.72–7.05). AMR isolates accounted for 44.2% of events. Fourteen-day, thirty-day and one-year mortality were 30.6% (95% CI: 28.5%–32.8%), 40.2% (95% CI: 38.2%–42.1%) and 66.5% (95% CI: 64.7%–68.3%), respectively. Organisms with highest risk for 30-day mortality (compared with E. coli) were A. baumannii (OR 2.85; 95% CI: 2.3–3.55), E. faecium (OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.66–2.79) and S. pneumoniae (OR 2.36; 95% CI: 1.21–4.59). Mortality was higher in AMR isolates (OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.4–1.77). This study highlights the incidence, associated high mortality and important role of antibiotic resistance in HO-BSI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1009
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • antimicrobial resistance
  • bacteremia surveillance
  • hospital-onset bloodstream infections
  • incidence
  • mortality
  • nationwide study


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