Blockage of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is required for differentiation of neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem cells (NSCs). Sera of untreated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients expressed significantly higher levels of BMP-2 compared to sera of healthy controls. BMP-2 levels correlated with BMP-4 and -5 levels only in sera of untreated MS patients. Furthermore, sera of untreated patients inhibited the neuronal differentiation of RA-treated P19 cells, which was associated with induction of phospho-SMAD signaling pathway. These results suggest that BMP-2 sera levels may play a role in the failure of remyelination and neuro-regeneration in RR-MS.
- Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)
- Multiple sclerosis
- Neural stem cells (NSCs)
- P19 cells