Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by a lack of superoxide production by the leukocyte enzyme NADPH oxidase. Superoxide is used to kill phagocytosed micro-organisms in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages. The leukocyte NADPH oxidase is composed of five subunits, of which the enzymatic component is gp91-phox, also called Nox2. This protein is encoded by the CYBB gene on the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene are found in about 70% of all CGD patients. This article lists all mutations identified in CYBB in the X-linked form of CGD. Moreover, apparently benign polymorphisms in CYBB are also given, which should facilitate the recognition of future disease-causing mutations.
- Chronic granulomatous disease
- NADPH oxidase
- X-linked disease