Heart Failure-Induced Brain Injury

Ofer Havakuk*, Kevin S. King, Luanda Grazette, Andrew J. Yoon, Michael Fong, Noa Bregman, Uri Elkayam, Robert A. Kloner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Heart failure (HF) is a systemic illness with grave implications for bodily functions. The brain, among other vital organs, often suffers insults as a result of HF, and both anatomic and functional brain abnormalities were found in the HF population. This injury was demonstrated across a wide range of clinical conditions and cardiac functions and was shown to affect patients’ outcomes. Although reduced cardiac output and high burden of cardiovascular risk factors are the prevailing explanations for these findings, there are data showing the involvement of neurohormonal, nutritional, and inflammatory mechanisms in this complex process. Here, the authors review the suggested pathophysiology behind brain injury in HF, describe its effect on patients’ outcomes, offer a diagnostic approach, and discuss possible therapeutic options.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1609-1616
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 28 Mar 2017


  • cerebral blood flow
  • cognitive impairment
  • depression


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