The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical healing of buccal marginal defects around implants placed in fresh extraction sockets or after several weeks together with barrier membranes and bone graft. Two implant placement protocols were compared: delayed-immediate sites primarily closed by a rotated (full thickness) palatal flap (RPF) at the time of tooth extraction and implantation after 4-6 weeks (Group 1, 24 patients, n = 31 implants) and immediate procedures (into fresh extraction sockets) primarily closed by a rotated split palatal flap (RSPF) (Group 2, 19 patients, n= 23 implants). One or two proximal maxillary implants were simultaneously placed. Height and width of the marginal defect were measured at the time of implant placement and after 6-8 months, at second stage surgery. For Groups 1 and 2, the mean percentage of the reduced defect height was 91.2% (± 9.12) and 77.4% (± 16.92), respectively, and the mean percentage area of the reduced defect was 97.2% (± 3.85) and 90.2% (± 9.15), respectively. Differences between groups were statistically significant. Groups were subdivided according to number of implants placed (one or two). Spontaneous implant cover screw exposure was seen only in Group 2. There was an association between the number of implants simultaneously placed and the occurrence of spontaneous exposure. The mean percentage reduction of the defect height and area was significantly smaller where there was spontaneous exposure. Significant differences were found for mean percentage reduction of the defect height and area only between the two implant subgroups within each group.
- Alveolar bone loss
- Barrier membranes
- Dental implants
- Endosseous dental implantation
- Guided bone regeneration