Gynecologic cancers in pregnancy: Guidelines of a second international consensus meeting

Frédéric Amant*, Michael J. Halaska, Monica Fumagalli, Karina Dahl Steffensen, Christianne Lok, Kristel Van Calsteren, Sileny N. Han, Olivier Mir, Robert Fruscio, Cathérine Uzan, Cynthia Maxwell, Jana Dekrem, Goedele Strauven, Mina Mhallem Gziri, Vesna Kesic, Paul Berveiller, Frank Van Den Heuvel, Petronella B. Ottevanger, Ignace Vergote, Michael LishnerPhilippe Morice, Irena Nulman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

178 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study aimed to provide timely and effective guidance for pregnant women and health care providers to optimize maternal treatment and fetal protection and to promote effective management of the mother, fetus, and neonate when administering potentially teratogenic medications. New insights and more experience were gained since the first consensus meeting 5 years ago. Methods: Members of the European Society of Gynecological Oncology task force "Cancer in Pregnancy" in concert with other international experts reviewed the existing literature on their respective areas of expertise. The summaries were subsequently merged into a complete article that served as a basis for discussion during the consensus meeting. All participants approved the final article. Results: In the experts' view, cancer can be successfully treated during pregnancy in collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team, optimizing maternal treatment while considering fetal safety. To maximize the maternal outcome, cancer treatment should follow a standard treatment protocol as for non pregnant patients. Iatrogenic pre-maturity should be avoided. Individualization of treatment and effective psychologic support is imperative to provide throughout the pregnancy period. Diagnostic procedures, including staging examinations and imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging and sonography, are preferable. Pelvic surgery, either open or laparoscopic, as part of a treatment protocol, may reveal beneficial outcomes and is preferably performed by experts. Most standard regimens of chemotherapy can be administered from 14 weeks gestational age onward. Apart from cervical and vulvar cancer, as well as important vulvar scarring, the mode of delivery is determined by the obstetrician. Term delivery is aimed for. Breast-feeding should be considered based on individual drug safety and neonatologist-breast-feeding expert's consult. Conclusions: Despite limited evidence-based information, cancer treatment during pregnancy can succeed. State-of-the-art treatment should be provided for this vulnerable population to preserve maternal and fetal prognosis. Supplementary Information: Supplementary data on teratogenic effects, ionizing examinations, sentinel lymph node biopsy, tumor markers during pregnancy, as well as additional references and tables are available at the extended online version of this consensus article, go to IGC/A197.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-403
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cancer
  • Chemotherapy
  • Consensus
  • Gynecologic
  • Pregnancy


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