Gut microbiome modulates the effects of a personalised postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet on cardiometabolic markers: a diet intervention in pre-diabetes

Orly Ben-Yacov, Anastasia Godneva, Michal Rein, Smadar Shilo, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Adina Weinberger, Eran Segal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective To explore the interplay between dietary modifications, microbiome composition and host metabolic responses in a dietary intervention setting of a personalised postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet versus a Mediterranean (MED) diet in pre-diabetes. Design In a 6-month dietary intervention, adults with pre-diabetes were randomly assigned to follow an MED or PPT diet (based on a machine-learning algorithm for predicting postprandial glucose responses). Data collected at baseline and 6 months from 200 participants who completed the intervention included: dietary data from self-recorded logging using a smartphone application, gut microbiome data from shotgun metagenomics sequencing of faecal samples, and clinical data from continuous glucose monitoring, blood biomarkers and anthropometrics. Results PPT diet induced more prominent changes to the gut microbiome composition, compared with MED diet, consistent with overall greater dietary modifications observed. Particularly, microbiome alpha-diversity increased significantly in PPT (p=0.007) but not in MED arm (p=0.18). Post hoc analysis of changes in multiple dietary features, including food-categories, nutrients and PPT-adherence score across the cohort, demonstrated significant associations between specific dietary changes and species-level changes in microbiome composition. Furthermore, using causal mediation analysis we detect nine microbial species that partially mediate the association between specific dietary changes and clinical outcomes, including three species (from Bacteroidales, Lachnospiraceae, Oscillospirales orders) that mediate the association between PPT-adherence score and clinical outcomes of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Finally, using machine-learning models trained on dietary changes and baseline clinical data, we predict personalised metabolic responses to dietary modifications and assess features importance for clinical improvement in cardiometabolic markers of blood lipids, glycaemic control and body weight. Conclusions Our findings support the role of gut microbiome in modulating the effects of dietary modifications on cardiometabolic outcomes, and advance the concept of precision nutrition strategies for reducing comorbidities in pre-diabetes. Trial registration number NCT03222791.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1486-1496
Number of pages11
JournalGut
Volume72
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • diabetes mellitus
  • diet
  • nutrition

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