Guidelines and recommendations on yeast cell death nomenclature

Didac Carmona-Gutierrez*, Maria Anna Bauer, Andreas Zimmermann, Andrés Aguilera, Nicanor Austriaco, Kathryn Ayscough, Rena Balzan, Shoshana Bar-Nun, Antonio Barrientos, Peter Belenky, Marc Blondel, Ralf J. Braun, Michael Breitenbach, William C. Burhans, Sabrina Büttner, Duccio Cavalieri, Michael Chang, Katrina F. Cooper, Manuela Côrte-Real, Vítor CostaChristophe Cullin, Ian Dawes, Jörn Dengjel, Martin B. Dickman, Tobias Eisenberg, Birthe Fahrenkrog, Nicolas Fasel, Kai Uwe Fröhlich, Ali Gargouri, Sergio Giannattasio, Paola Goffrini, Campbell W. Gourlay, Chris M. Grant, Michael T. Greenwood, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Thomas Heger, Jürgen Heinisch, Eva Herker, Johannes M. Herrmann, Sebastian Hofer, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, Helmut Jungwirth, Katharina Kainz, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Paula Ludovico, Stéphen Manon, Enzo Martegani, Cristina Mazzoni, Lynn A. Megeney, Chris Meisinger, Jens Nielsen, Thomas Nyström, Heinz D. Osiewacz, Tiago F. Outeiro, Hay Oak Park, Tobias Pendl, Dina Petranovic, Stephane Picot, Peter Polčic, Ted Powers, Mark Ramsdale, Mark Rinnerthaler, Patrick Rockenfeller, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Raffael Schaffrath, Maria Segovia, Fedor F. Severin, Amir Sharon, Stephan J. Sigrist, Cornelia Sommer-Ruck, Maria João Sousa, Johan M. Thevelein, Karin Thevissen, Vladimir Titorenko, Michel B. Toledano, Mick Tuite, F. Nora Vögtle, Benedikt Westermann, Joris Winderickx, Silke Wissing, Stefan Wölfl, Zhaojie J. Zhang, Richard Y. Zhao, Bing Zhou, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Frank Madeo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations


Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cellular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the definition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic cell death, as we refer to additional cell death routines that are relevant for the biology of (at least some species of) yeast. As this area of investigation advances rapidly, changes and extensions to this set of recommendations will be implemented in the years to come. Nonetheless, we strongly encourage the authors, reviewers and editors of scientific articles to adopt these collective standards in order to establish an accurate framework for yeast cell death research and, ultimately, to accelerate the progress of this vibrant field of research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4-31
Number of pages28
JournalMicrobial Cell
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2018


FundersFunder number
U.S. Department of Veterans AffairsI01BX003303
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs


    • Accidental cell death
    • Apoptosis
    • Autophagic cell death
    • Autophagy
    • Caspases
    • Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization
    • Mitotic catastrophe
    • Model organism
    • Necrosis
    • Reactive oxygen species
    • Regulated cell death
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae


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