We perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study heated granular fluids in three dimensions. Granular particles dissipate their kinetic energy due to solid frictional interaction with other particles. The velocity of each particle is perturbed by a uniformly-distributed random noise, which mimics the heating. At the early stage of evolution, the kinetic energy of the system decays with time and reaches a steady state at a later stage. The velocity distribution in the steady state shows a non-Gaussian distribution. This has been characterized by using the Sonine polynomial expansion for a wide range of densities. Particles show diffusive motion for densities below the jamming densityϕJ.
- Granular gases