Grain Tribute in Hittite Syria and the Fall of Ugarit

Yoram Cohen, Eduardo Torrecilla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper examines the term mānahātu in the letters from Hittite officials found at the House of Urtenu from Ugarit and recently published in the Ras Shamra-Ougarit 23 volume (RSO 23, Lackenbacher and Malbran-Labat 2016). This paper proposes that the exact meaning of mānahātu-in Ugaritic mnḥ(t)-depends on the context, since it was both a vassal tribute due to the empire by the Ugarit palace (consisting of vast amounts of grain staples) and a form of taxation imposed by the Ugarit palace on merchants and citizens of the kingdom at a local level. In addition, the letters concerning mānahātu reveal that the Hittite pressure on its vassal to meet its requirements likely contributed much to exacerbate the food shortage suffered by the kingdom of Ugarit, not long before its fall in the early 12th century B.C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-73
Number of pages9
JournalBulletin of ASOR
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 May 2023


  • administration
  • diplomacy
  • famine
  • grain
  • Hatti
  • Late Bronze Age collapse
  • mānahātu
  • tribute
  • Ugarit
  • vassal


Dive into the research topics of 'Grain Tribute in Hittite Syria and the Fall of Ugarit'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this