Gluten-free diet can ameliorate the symptoms of non-celiac autoimmune diseases

Aaron Lerner, Jozélio Freire De Carvalho, Anna Kotrova, Yehuda Shoenfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the recommended treatment for gluten-dependent disease. In addition, gluten withdrawal is popular and occasionally is suggested as a treatment for other autoimmune diseases (ADs). Objective: The current systematic review summarizes those entities and discusses the logic behind using a GFD in classical non-gluten-dependentADs. Data Sources: A search for medical articles in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, LILACS, and Scielo published between 1960 and 2020 was conducted, using the key words for various ADs and GFDs. Data Exxtraction: Eight-three articles were included in the systematic review (using PRISMA guidelines). Data Analysis: Reduction in symptoms of ADs after observance of a GFD was observed in 911 out of 1408 patients (64.7%) and in 66 out of the 83 selected studies (79.5%). The age of the patients ranged from 9 months to 69 years. The duration of the GFD varied from 1 month to 9 years. A GFD can suppress several harmful intraluminal intestinal events. Potential mechanisms and pathways for the action of GFD in the gut-remote organs' axis have been suggested. Conclusion: A GFD might represent a novel nutritional therapeutic strategy for classical non-gluten-dependent autoimmune conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)525-543
Number of pages19
JournalNutrition Reviews
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Autoimmune disease
  • Gluten withdrawal
  • Gluten-free Diet
  • Gut-brain axes
  • Gut-peripheral organs axes
  • Microbiome/dysbiome ratio
  • Non-celiac autoimmune disease


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