Glutamate toxicity is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, protecting neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity might be an effective approach for the treatment of these diseases. We have previously purified from the medicinal plant Achillea fragrantissima two bioactive compounds which were not studied before: the sesquiterpene lactone achillolide A and the flavonoid 3,5,4′-trihydroxy-6,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone (TTF). We have shown that these compounds protect astrocytes from oxidative stress-induced cell death and inhibit microglial activation. The current study examined for the first time their effects on differentiated mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and on glutamate toxicity. We have found that, although these compounds belong to different chemical families, they protect neuronal cells from glutamate toxicity. We further demonstrate that this protective effect might be, at least partially, due to inhibitory effects of these compounds on the levels of reactive oxygen species produced following treatment with glutamate.
- Achillolide A
- Glutamate toxicity
- Mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells
- Sesquiterpene lactones