Gestational Diabetes Mellitus—Innovative Approach to Prediction, Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Future NCD—Mother and Offspring

H. David McIntyre*, Anil Kapur, Hema Divakar, Moshe Hod

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the commonest medical complication of pregnancy. The association of GDM with immediate pregnancy complications including excess fetal growth and adiposity with subsequent risk of birth trauma and with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is well recognized. However, the associations with wide ranges of longer-term health outcomes for mother and baby, including the lifetime risks of obesity, pre-diabetes, and diabetes and cardiovascular disease have received less attention and few health systems address these important issues in a systematic way. This article reviews historical and recent data regarding prediction of GDM using demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters. We evaluate current and potential future diagnostic approaches designed to most effectively identify GDM and extend this analysis into a critical evaluation of lifestyle and nutritional/pharmacologic interventions designed to prevent the development of GDM. The general approach to management of GDM during pregnancy is then discussed and the major final focus of the article revolves around the importance of a GDM diagnosis as a future marker of the risk of non-communicable disease (NCD), in particular pre-diabetes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, both in mother and offspring.

Original languageEnglish
Article number614533
JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - 3 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • diagnosis
  • gestational diabetes
  • management
  • non-communicable disease
  • prediction
  • pregnancy
  • prevention

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