Objective: To assess the impact of different management approaches to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on perinatal outcome. Patients and Methods: The study group consisted of 2,060 patients with GDM treated in our center from January 1980 through December 1999. Four time periods were defined on the basis of changes in treatment protocols. Perinatal complications were compared between the periods and with normal pregnancy controls. Results: The last two periods (1993-1999) were characterized by lower mean glucose level, lower mean gestational age at delivery, and a decline in macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and perinatal mortality rates, but also by high rates of labor induction and Cesarean delivery. A significant difference was found between the GDM and normal control groups in rates of labor induction (38.6% vs 10.8%, p <0.001) and Cesarean delivery (34% vs 20%, p <0.001) for the last period. Conclusions: Perinatal complications are preventable with good glycemic control and early induction of labor, but at a cost of a higher Cesarean section rate.
- Gestational diabetes mellitus