Genotypic variation of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease: Comparative analysis of clade C and clade B

Zehava Grossman*, Nurit Vardinon, Daniel Chemtob, Michael L. Alkan, Zvi Bentwich, Michael Burke, Giora Gottesman, Valery Istomin, Itzchak Levi, Shlomo Maayan, Eduardo Shahar, Jonathan M. Schapiro

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To compare drug-resistant variants from untreated (naive) and treated patients infected with clade B or C virus. Methods: Consecutive samples (165) from patients throughout Israel were analyzed. All those in the treated group were failing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Results: There were 78 clade C (20 naive) and 87 clade B (14 naive) with significant differences in the prevalence of known drug-resistance mutations between the clades: in naive patients in the protease region M361 7% and 95% (P < 0.0001), K20R 0% and 27% (P = 0.063), A71V 18% and 0% (P = 0.063), M461 0% and 13%, and V771 18% and 0% (P = 0.063), respectively, and in the reverse transcriptase region A98G/S 0% and 20% (P = 0.12), respectively. Most clade C viruses also showed significant differences from clade B consensus sequence at additional protease sites: R41K 100%, H69K/Q 85%, L89M 95% and 193L 80% (P < 0.0001). There were also significant differences (P < 0.03 to < 0.0001) in treated patients in clades B and C: in the protease region L101 40% and 12%, M361 26% and 95%, L63P 67% and 40%, A711 38% and 7%, G731 and V771 18% and 0%, 184V 16% and 3%, and L90M 40% and 12%, respectively; in the reverse transcriptase M41L 41% and 17%, D67N 41% and 12%, K70R 30% and 7%, T215Y 48% and 29%, K219Q 21% and 7%, and A98G/ S 3% and 24%, respectively. Conclusion: Significantly differences between clade B and C viruses may be associated with development of differing resistance patterns during therapy and may affect drug utility in patients infected with clade C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1453-1460
Number of pages8
Issue number12
StatePublished - 17 Aug 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Clade C
  • Genotyping
  • HIV-1
  • Mutations
  • Protease
  • Resistance
  • Reverse transcriptase


Dive into the research topics of 'Genotypic variation of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease: Comparative analysis of clade C and clade B'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this