Genetics of murine type 2 diabetes and comorbidities

Iqbal M. Lone, Fuad A. Iraqi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a polygenic and multifactorial complex disease, defined as chronic metabolic disorder. It's a major global health concern with an estimated 463 million adults aged 20–79 years with diabetes and projected to increase up to 700 million by 2045. T2D was reported to be one of the four leading causes of non-communicable disease (NCD) deaths in 2012. Environmental factors play a part in the development of polygenic forms of diabetes. Polygenic forms of diabetes often run-in families. Fortunately, T2D, which accounts for 90–95% of the entire four types of diabetes including, Type 1 diabetes (T1D), T2D, monogenic diabetes syndromes (MGDS), and Gestational diabetes mellitus, can be prevented or delayed through nutrition and lifestyle changes as well as through pharmacologic interventions. Typical symptom of the T2D is high blood glucose levels and comprehensive insulin resistance of the body, producing an impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose tolerance of T2D is accompanied by extensive health complications, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) that vary in morbidity and mortality among populations. The pathogenesis of T2D varies between populations and/or ethnic groupings and is known to be attributed extremely by genetic components and environmental factors. It is evident that genetic background plays a critical role in determining the host response toward certain environmental conditions, whether or not of developing T2D (susceptibility versus resistant). T2D is considered as a silent disease that can progress for years before its diagnosis. Once T2D is diagnosed, many metabolic malfunctions are observed whether as side effects or as independent comorbidity. Mouse models have been proven to be a powerful tool for mapping genetic factors that underline the susceptibility to T2D development as well its comorbidities. Here, we have conducted a comprehensive search throughout the published data covering the time span from early 1990s till the time of writing this review, for already reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with murine T2D and comorbidities in different mouse models, which contain different genetic backgrounds. Our search has resulted in finding 54 QTLs associated with T2D in addition to 72 QTLs associated with comorbidities associated with the disease. We summarized the genomic locations of these mapped QTLs in graphical formats, so as to show the overlapping positions between of these mapped QTLs, which may suggest that some of these QTLs could be underlined by sharing gene/s. Finally, we reviewed and addressed published reports that show the success of translation of the identified mouse QTLs/genes associated with the disease in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-436
Number of pages16
JournalMammalian Genome
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022

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