To test whether general self-efficacy and self-esteem relate differently to motivational and affective constructs, we collected data from samples in academic and work settings. Results suggest that general self-efficacy is more highly related to motivational variables than is self-esteem, whereas self-esteem is more highly related to affective variables than is general self-efficacy, as hypothesized. Furthermore, results support the notion that motivational and affective states differentially mediate the relationships of general self-efficacy and self-esteem with task performance. These results confirm the theoretical distinction between general self-efficacy and self-esteem and suggest that failure to distinguish between them might exact a price in terms of precision, validity, and understanding of determinants of performance. Implications for research and practice in organizations are discussed.