General pathophysiology

Albert Augustin, Anat Loewenstein, Baruch D. Kuppermann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Macular edema represents a common final pathway for many disease processes. Related ocular disorders include diabetic retinopathy, vascular occlusions, post surgical situations and inherited disorders. The pathophysiology includes breakdown of the blood ocular barrier, release of various cytokines and significant inflammations. These mechanisms may be complicated by ischemic processes. The various pathogenetic mechanisms and their contribution to the edema process are described in detail in this chapter.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMacular Edema
Subtitle of host publicationA Practical Approach
EditorsGabriel Coscas, Gisele Soubrane, Jose Cunha-Vaz, Anat Loewenstein
Number of pages17
StatePublished - 2010

Publication series

NameDevelopments in Ophthalmology
ISSN (Print)0250-3751
ISSN (Electronic)1662-2790


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