Gender-Related Cardiovascular Risk in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

Olga Perelshtein Brezinov*, Shaye Kivity, Shlomo Segev, Yechezkel Sidi, Ilan Goldenberg, Elad Maor, Robert Klempfner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Men tend to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) earlier in life than women. Whether this difference is attributable only to gender is a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences in cardiovascular risk in a large cohort of asymptomatic men and women and explore gender-related risk in prespecified risk factor subgroups. We investigated 14,966 asymptomatic men and women free of diabetes, hypertension, or ischemic heart disease who were annually screened. The primary end point of the present study was the occurrence of ischemic or cerebrovascular disease as composite end point. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the gender difference regarding CVD and to examine the association between CVD risk factors and gender. Mean age of the study population was 47 ± 10 years and 30% were women. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that at 6.2 ± 3.9 years' follow-up, the rate of CVD events was 6.1% among men compared with 1.8% among women (log-rank p <0.001). Consistently, multivariate analysis demonstrated that male gender was independently associated with a significant threefold increased risk for development of CVD events (hazard ratio 3.05, CI 2.25 to 4.14). The CVD risk associated with male gender was consistent in each risk subset analyzed, including older age, low high-density lipoprotein, impaired fasting glucose, and positive family history for ischemic heart disease (all p values for gender-by-risk factor interactions <0.05). Higher performance on treadmill test had a protective effect regarding CVD development in both men and women. In conclusions, healthy middle-aged men experienced increased risk for the development of CVD events compared with women independently of traditional CVD risk factors. However, better exercise capacity is associated with a protective effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1669-1673
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2016


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