Freud (1933) suggested that women enter motherhood with a motivation to compensate for anatomical and psychological inferiority. This motivation is reflected in the desire to bear a son. Freud's idea was investigated by examining pregnant women's preferences regarding fetal gender and their emotional reactions (anxiety and depression) to information about fetal gender following an ultrasound examination and postpartum. Subjects were first-time and third-time pregnant women. In the third-time pregnant group only women who had two previous children of the same gender were investigated. First-time pregnant women did not express a predominant preference for any gender, third-time pregnant women preferred a child of a gender they did not have. In the first pregnancy, after the examination, subjects experienced a significant decrease in depression, and postpartum a significant elevation in both emotions. Preference and information about fetal gender affected depression only when they interacted with the time of measurement. In the third pregnancy, anxiety and depression were highest after the examination and the strongest elevation in both emotions was reported by women who had two sons, preferred a daughter and were informed they will deliver a son. The findings in both pregnancies put doubt on Freud's ideas about the motivation for motherhood, and suggest that social factors may also play a part in determining mother's attitude and emotional reactions towards fetal and neonate's gender.