Gender differences in clinical presentation and prognosis of thyroid eye disease

Ofira Zloto*, Oded Sagiv, Ayelet Priel, Tali Cukierman-Yaffe, Amir Tirosh, Nancy Agmon-Levin, Shiran Madgar, Tal Serlin, Guy Ben Simon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To examine the clinical differences in manifestation, treatment, and prognosis of thyroid-eye-disease (TED) between men and women. Methods: This is a longitudinal cohort study. Men and women, who diagnosed with TED and treated at a multidisciplinary TED clinic, were compared regarding differences in demographics, eye examination, disease activity, and quality of life evaluation. Results: TED was diagnosed in 132 patients during the study period, and they included 38 men (28.78%) and 94 women (71.21%). There were six men and 20 women with active disease (Clinical-Activity-Score (CAS) ⩾ 3) during the entire follow-up period (p < 0.01). The mean time from TED diagnosis to CAS ⩾ 3 was 4.50 years for men and 2.35 years for women (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences in mean total Graves’ Orbitopathy-Quality-of-Life questionnaire (GO-QOL) score. However, mean GO-QOL subtotal score of external appearance of women was significantly lower compare to men in the first and last visit (p = 0.04, 0.03, respectively). Conclusion: Active disease was more common in women and the time-from-diagnosis of TED to CAS ⩾ 3 was shorter among women. Moreover, the appearance QOL score of women was poorer. These findings should be taken into consideration when planning the timing of treatment and when choosing the best treatment for TED patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2717-2723
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Thyroid eye disease
  • eyelid disease: eyelid malpositions/trichiasis/ptosis
  • neuro ophthalmology
  • optic neuropathy
  • orbital disease
  • strabismus


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