Gauge invariance and pseudoperturbations

Y. Aharonov, C. K. Au

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We define pseudoperturbations as the difference between two Hamiltonians that are related by a generalized gauge transformation. We state and prove the theorem that such pseudoperturbations cannot cause any real physical transitions. We also rigorously establish the generalized gauge invariance of physical transition-matrix elements in real processes. Our theorem also generates some interesting sum rules and onshell identities which can serve as useful constraints in variational calculations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1553-1562
Number of pages10
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1979


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