Gaia Data Release 1: Testing parallaxes with local Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars

G. Clementini*, L. Eyer, V. Ripepi, M. Marconi, T. Muraveva, A. Garofalo, L. M. Sarro, M. Palmer, X. Luri, R. Molinaro, L. Rimoldini, L. Szabados, I. Musella, R. I. Anderson, T. Prusti, J. H.J. De Bruijne, A. G.A. Brown, A. Vallenari, C. Babusiaux, C. A.L. Bailer-JonesU. Bastian, M. Biermann, D. W. Evans, F. Jansen, C. Jordi, S. A. Klioner, U. Lammers, L. Lindegren, F. Mignard, C. Panem, D. Pourbaix, S. Randich, P. Sartoretti, H. I. Siddiqui, C. Soubiran, V. Valette, F. Van Leeuwen, N. A. Walton, C. Aerts, F. Arenou, M. Cropper, R. Drimmel, E. Høg, D. Katz, M. G. Lattanzi, W. O'Mullane, E. K. Grebel, A. D. Holland, C. Huc, X. Passot, M. Perryman, L. Bramante, C. Cacciari, J. Castañeda, L. Chaoul, N. Cheek, F. De Angeli, C. Fabricius, R. Guerra, J. Hernández, A. Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, E. Masana, R. Messineo, N. Mowlavi, K. Nienartowicz, D. Ordóñez-Blanco, P. Panuzzo, J. Portell, P. J. Richards, M. Riello, G. M. Seabroke, P. Tanga, F. Thévenin, J. Torra, S. G. Els, G. Gracia-Abril, G. Comoretto, M. Garcia-Reinaldos, T. Lock, E. Mercier, M. Altmann, R. Andrae, T. L. Astraatmadja, I. Bellas-Velidis, K. Benson, J. Berthier, R. Blomme, G. Busso, B. Carry, A. Cellino, S. Cowell, O. Creevey, J. Cuypers, M. Davidson, J. De Ridder, A. De Torres, L. Delchambre, A. Dell'Oro, C. Ducourant, Y. Frémat, M. García-Torres, E. Gosset, J. L. Halbwachs, N. C. Hambly, D. L. Harrison, M. Hauser, D. Hestroffer, S. T. Hodgkin, H. E. Huckle, A. Hutton, G. Jasniewicz, S. Jordan, M. Kontizas, A. J. Korn, A. C. Lanzafame, M. Manteiga, A. Moitinho, K. Muinonen, J. Osinde, E. Pancino, T. Pauwels, J. M. Petit, A. Recio-Blanco, A. C. Robin, C. Siopis, M. Smith, K. W. Smith, A. Sozzetti, W. Thuillot, W. Van Reeven, Y. Viala, U. Abbas, A. Abreu Aramburu, S. Accart, J. J. Aguado, P. M. Allan, W. Allasia, G. Altavilla, M. A. Álvarez, J. Alves, A. H. Andrei, E. Anglada Varela, E. Antiche, T. Antoja, S. Antón, B. Arcay, N. Bach, S. G. Baker, L. Balaguer-Núñez, C. Barache, C. Barata, A. Barbier, F. Barblan, Navascués Y. Barrado, M. Barros, M. A. Barstow, U. Becciani, M. Bellazzini, A. Bello García, V. Belokurov, P. Bendjoya, A. Berihuete, L. Bianchi, O. Bienaymé, F. Billebaud, N. Blagorodnova, S. Blanco-Cuaresma, T. Boch, A. Bombrun, R. Borrachero, S. Bouquillon, G. Bourda, A. Bragaglia, M. A. Breddels, N. Brouillet, T. Brüsemeister, B. Bucciarelli, P. Burgess, R. Burgon, A. Burlacu, D. Busonero, R. Buzzi, E. Caffau, J. Cambras, H. Campbell, R. Cancelliere, T. Cantat-Gaudin, T. Carlucci, J. M. Carrasco, M. Castellani, P. Charlot, J. Charnas, A. Chiavassa, M. Clotet, G. Cocozza, R. S. Collins, G. Costigan, F. Crifo, N. J.G. Cross, M. Crosta, C. Crowley, C. Dafonte, Y. Damerdji, A. Dapergolas, P. David, M. David, P. De Cat, F. De Felice, P. De Laverny, F. De Luise, R. De March, R. De Souza, J. Debosscher, E. Del Pozo, M. Delbo, A. Delgado, H. E. Delgado, P. Di Matteo, S. Diakite, E. Distefano, C. Dolding, S. Dos Anjos, P. Drazinos, J. Durán, Y. Dzigan, B. Edvardsson, H. Enke, N. W. Evans, G. Eynard Bontemps, C. Fabre, M. Fabrizio, A. J. Falcão, M. Farràs Casas, L. Federici, G. Fedorets, J. Fernández-Hernández, P. Fernique, A. Fienga, F. Figueras, F. Filippi, K. Findeisen, A. Fonti, M. Fouesneau, E. Fraile, M. Fraser, J. Fuchs, M. Gai, S. Galleti, L. Galluccio, D. Garabato, F. García-Sedano, N. Garralda, P. Gavras, J. Gerssen, R. Geyer, G. Gilmore, S. Girona, G. Giuffrida, M. Gomes, A. González-Marcos, J. González-Núñez, J. J. González-Vidal, M. Granvik, A. Guerrier, P. Guillout, J. Guiraud, A. Gúrpide, R. Gutiérrez-Sánchez, L. P. Guy, R. Haigron, D. Hatzidimitriou, M. Haywood, U. Heiter, A. Helmi, D. Hobbs, W. Hofmann, B. Holl, G. Holland, J. A.S. Hunt, A. Hypki, V. Icardi, M. Irwin, G. Jevardat De Fombelle, P. Jofré, P. G. Jonker, A. Jorissen, F. Julbe, A. Karampelas, A. Kochoska, R. Kohley, K. Kolenberg, E. Kontizas, S. E. Koposov, G. Kordopatis, P. Koubsky, A. Krone-Martins, M. Kudryashova, R. K. Bachchan, F. Lacoste-Seris, A. F. Lanza, J. B. Lavigne, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, Y. Lebreton, T. Lebzelter, S. Leccia, N. Leclerc, I. Lecoeur-Taibi, V. Lemaitre, H. Lenhardt, F. Leroux, S. Liao, E. Licata, H. E.P. Lindstrøm, T. A. Lister, E. Livanou, A. Lobel, W. Löffler, M. López, D. Lorenz, I. Macdonald, T. Magalhães Fernandes, S. Managau, R. G. Mann, G. Mantelet, O. Marchal, J. M. Marchant, S. Marinoni, P. M. Marrese, G. Marschalkó, D. J. Marshall, J. M. Martín-Fleitas, M. Martino, N. Mary, G. Matijevič, P. J. McMillan, S. Messina, D. Michalik, N. R. Millar, B. M.H. Miranda, D. Molina, M. Molinaro, L. Molnár, M. Moniez, P. Montegriffo, R. Mor, A. Mora, R. Morbidelli, T. Morel, S. Morgenthaler, D. Morris, A. F. Mulone, J. Narbonne, G. Nelemans, L. Nicastro, L. Noval, C. Ordénovic, J. Ordieres-Meré, P. Osborne, C. Pagani, I. Pagano, F. Pailler, H. Palacin, L. Palaversa, P. Parsons, M. Pecoraro, R. Pedrosa, H. Pentikäinen, B. Pichon, A. M. Piersimoni, F. X. Pineau, E. Plachy, G. Plum, E. Poujoulet, A. Prša, L. Pulone, S. Ragaini, S. Rago, N. Rambaux, M. Ramos-Lerate, P. Ranalli, G. Rauw, A. Read, S. Regibo, C. Reylé, R. A. Ribeiro, A. Riva, G. Rixon, M. Roelens, M. Romero-Gómez, N. Rowell, F. Royer, L. Ruiz-Dern, G. Sadowski, T. Sagristà Sellés, J. Sahlmann, J. Salgado, E. Salguero, M. Sarasso, H. Savietto, M. Schultheis, E. Sciacca, M. Segol, J. C. Segovia, D. Segransan, I. C. Shih, R. Smareglia, R. L. Smart, E. Solano, F. Solitro, R. Sordo, S. Soria Nieto, J. Souchay, A. Spagna, F. Spoto, U. Stampa, I. A. Steele, H. Steidelmüller, C. A. Stephenson, H. Stoev, F. F. Suess, M. Süveges, J. Surdej, E. Szegedi-Elek, D. Tapiador, F. Taris, G. Tauran, M. B. Taylor, R. Teixeira, D. Terrett, B. Tingley, S. C. Trager, C. Turon, A. Ulla, E. Utrilla, G. Valentini, A. Van Elteren, E. Van Hemelryck, M. Van Leeuwen, M. Varadi, A. Vecchiato, J. Veljanoski, T. Via, D. Vicente, S. Vogt, H. Voss, V. Votruba, S. Voutsinas, G. Walmsley, M. Weiler, K. Weingrill, T. Wevers, L. Wyrzykowski, A. Yoldas, M. Zerjal, S. Zucker, C. Zurbach, T. Zwitter, A. Alecu, M. Allen, C. Allende Prieto, A. Amorim, G. Anglada-Escudé, V. Arsenijevic, S. Azaz, P. Balm, M. Beck, H. H. Bernstein, L. Bigot, A. Bijaoui, C. Blasco, M. Bonfigli, G. Bono, S. Boudreault, A. Bressan, S. Brown, P. M. Brunet, P. Bunclark, R. Buonanno, A. G. Butkevich, C. Carret, C. Carrion, L. Chemin, F. Chéreau, L. Corcione, E. Darmigny, K. S. De Boer, P. De Teodoro, P. T. De Zeeuw, C. Delle Luche, C. D. Domingues, P. Dubath, F. Fodor, B. Frézouls, A. Fries, D. Fustes, D. Fyfe, E. Gallardo, J. Gallegos, D. Gardiol, M. Gebran, A. Gomboc, A. Gómez, E. Grux, A. Gueguen, A. Heyrovsky, J. Hoar, G. Iannicola, Y. Isasi Parache, A. M. Janotto, E. Joliet, A. Jonckheere, R. Keil, D. W. Kim, P. Klagyivik, J. Klar, J. Knude, O. Kochukhov, I. Kolka, J. Kos, A. Kutka, V. Lainey, D. Lebouquin, C. Liu, D. Loreggia, V. V. Makarov, M. G. Marseille, C. Martayan, O. Martinez-Rubi, B. Massart, F. Meynadier, S. Mignot, U. Munari, A. T. Nguyen, T. Nordlander, K. S. O'Flaherty, P. Ocvirk, A. Olias Sanz, P. Ortiz, J. Osorio, D. Oszkiewicz, A. Ouzounis, P. Park, E. Pasquato, C. Peltzer, J. Peralta, F. Péturaud, T. Pieniluoma, E. Pigozzi, J. Poels, G. Prat, T. Prod'Homme, F. Raison, J. M. Rebordao, D. Risquez, B. Rocca-Volmerange, S. Rosen, M. I. Ruiz-Fuertes, F. Russo, I. Serraller Vizcaino, A. Short, A. Siebert, H. Silva, D. Sinachopoulos, E. Slezak, M. Soffel, D. Sosnowska, V. StraizYs, M. Ter Linden, D. Terrell, S. Theil, C. Tiede, L. Troisi, P. Tsalmantza, D. Tur, M. Vaccari, F. Vachier, P. Valles, W. Van Hamme, L. Veltz, J. Virtanen, J. M. Wallut, R. Wichmann, M. I. Wilkinson, H. Ziaeepour, S. Zschocke

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations

Abstract

Context. Parallaxes for 331 classical Cepheids, 31 Type II Cepheids, and 364 RR Lyrae stars in common between Gaia and the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues are published in Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) as part of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). Aims. In order to test these first parallax measurements of the primary standard candles of the cosmological distance ladder, which involve astrometry collected by Gaia during the initial 14 months of science operation, we compared them with literature estimates and derived new period-luminosity (PL), period-Wesenheit (PW) relations for classical and Type II Cepheids and infrared PL, PL-metallicity (PLZ), and optical luminosity-metallicity (MV-[Fe/H]) relations for the RR Lyrae stars, with zero points based on TGAS. Methods. Classical Cepheids were carefully selected in order to discard known or suspected binary systems. The final sample comprises 102 fundamental mode pulsators with periods ranging from 1.68 to 51.66 days (of which 33 with σΩ/Ω< 0.5). The Type II Cepheids include a total of 26 W Virginis and BL Herculis stars spanning the period range from 1.16 to 30.00 days (of which only 7 with σΩ/Ω< 0.5). The RR Lyrae stars include 200 sources with pulsation period ranging from 0.27 to 0.80 days (of which 112 with σΩ/Ω< 0.5). The new relations were computed using multi-band (V,I,J,Ks) photometry and spectroscopic metal abundances available in the literature, and by applying three alternative approaches: (i) linear least-squares fitting of the absolute magnitudes inferred from direct transformation of the TGAS parallaxes; (ii) adopting astrometry-based luminosities; and (iii) using a Bayesian fitting approach. The last two methods work in parallax space where parallaxes are used directly, thus maintaining symmetrical errors and allowing negative parallaxes to be used. The TGAS-based PL,PW,PLZ, and MV- [Fe/H] relations are discussed by comparing the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud provided by different types of pulsating stars and alternative fitting methods. Results. Good agreement is found from direct comparison of the parallaxes of RR Lyrae stars for which both TGAS and HST measurements are available. Similarly, very good agreement is found between the TGAS values and the parallaxes inferred from the absolute magnitudes of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars analysed with the Baade-Wesselink method. TGAS values also compare favourably with the parallaxes inferred by theoretical model fitting of the multi-band light curves for two of the three classical Cepheids and one RR Lyrae star, which were analysed with this technique in our samples. The K-band PL relations show the significant improvement of the TGAS parallaxes for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with respect to the Hipparcos measurements. This is particularly true for the RR Lyrae stars for which improvement in quality and statistics is impressive. Conclusions. TGAS parallaxes bring a significant added value to the previous Hipparcos estimates. The relations presented in this paper represent the first Gaia-calibrated relations and form a work-in-progress milestone report in the wait for Gaia-only parallaxes of which a first solution will become available with Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) in 2018.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA79
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume605
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2017

Funding

FundersFunder number
Algerian Centre de Recherche en Astronomie
Austrian FWF Hertha Firnberg ProgrammeT359, P23737, P20046
Czech-Republic Ministry of Education, Youth, and SportsLG 15010
Danish Ministry of Science
European Leadership in Space Astrometry
European Space Agency Plan for European Cooperating States
FAPESP-COFECUB
French Utinam Institute of the Université de Franche-Comté
GREAT-ESF
HARMONIA2015/18/M/ST9/00544
INSU
Institut des Sciences de l’Univers
Marie Curie Research Training NetworkMRTN-CT-2006-033481
Marie Curie Transfer-of-Knowledge
PECS
Portugese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tec-nologia
Ré-gion de Franche-Comté
SAS-RRL
Spanish Ministry of Economy MINECO-FEDERAyA2014-55216, MDM-2014-0369, ESP2013-48318-C2-R, ESP2014-55996-C2-R, AyA2011-24052
Strategic ProgrammesPEst-OE/AMB/UI4006/2011, UID/EEA/00066/2013, UID/FIS/00099/2013
Swiss Activités Na-tionales Complémentaires
Swiss Mesures d’Accompagnement
ToKMTKD-CT-2004-014188
United Kingdom Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
Seventh Framework Programme320360, 606740, 255267, 264895, 670519
Seventh Framework Programme
Sixth Framework Programme
UK Space AgencyST/K000578/1, ST/N000978/1
UK Space Agency
Science and Technology Facilities CouncilST/I00047X/1, PP/C506756/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council
Marie CuriePIOF-GA-2009-255267
Marie Curie
European Research Council
European Science Foundation
European Space Agency98058
European Space Agency
Agence Nationale de la RechercheANR-10-IDEX-0001-02
Agence Nationale de la Recherche
Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaNSFC 11573054
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Swedish National Space Agency
Fundação para a Ciência e a TecnologiaPDCTE/CTE-AST/81711/2003, PTDC/CTE-SPA/118692/2010, SFRH/BPD/74697/2010
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior
Academy of Finland
Belgian Federal Science Policy Office
Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt50QG1001, 50QG1101, 50QG1401, 50QG140, 50QG0501, 50QG1402, 50QG0602, 50QG0701, 50QG0601, 50QG1404, 50QG0901
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk OnderzoekNWO-M-614.061.414
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Haridus- ja TeadusministeeriumIUT40-1
Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium
Magyar Tudományos AkadémiaLP2014-17
Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana2013/030/I.0, I/058/10/0, 2014-025-R.0, I/037/08/0, 2014-025-R.1.2015, I/008/10/0
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana
Magnus Ehrnroothin Säätiö
Narodowe Centrum Nauki
Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
European Social Fund
Seventh Framework ProgrammeFP7-606740, FP7-SPACE-2013-1
Seventh Framework Programme
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica
Ministry of Science and Technology, Israel3-9082
Ministry of Science and Technology, Israel
Université de Bordeaux
Earth and Life Systems Alliance
Staatssekretariat für Bildung, Forschung und Innovation
United Kingdom Space Agency
Instituto de Ciencias del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie
National Research, Development and Innovation OfficePD-116175, NKFIH K-115709, K-119517
National Research, Development and Innovation Office

    Keywords

    • Astrometry
    • Methods: data analysis
    • Parallaxes
    • Stars: distances
    • Stars: variables: Cepheids
    • Stars: variables: RR Lyrae

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