Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which occurs predominantly in the pediatric population. Acute treatment is high-dose intravenous glucocorticoids. Alternative treatment is usually intravenous immune globulin and/or plasma exchange. Fulminant ADEM is rare in children. Only a few cases of cyclophosphamide use in refractory ADEM have been reported. Here, we report a case of a 12-year-old girl with fulminant ADEM who was comatose and improved dramatically after cyclophosphamide administration. Cyclophosphamide treatment should be considered as a therapy in children with fulminant ADEM nonresponsive to standard therapies.
- acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
- intravenous immune globulin