OBJECTIVE - To report frequencies of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among the 15 centers that participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study using the new International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - All participants underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 32 weeks' gestation. GDM was retrospectively classified using the IADPSG criteria (one or more fasting, 1-h, or 2-h plasma glucose concentrations equal to or greater than threshold values of 5.1, 10.0, or 8.5 mmol/L, respectively). RESULTS - Overall frequency of GDM was 17.8% (range 9.3-25.5%). There was substantial center-to-center variation in which glucose measures met diagnostic thresholds. CONCLUSIONS - Although the new diagnostic criteria for GDM apply globally, center-to-center differences occur in GDM frequency and relative diagnostic importance of fasting, 1-h, and 2-h glucose levels. This may impact strategies used for the diagnosis of GDM.