Francis Galton's regression towards mediocrity and the stability of types

Adam Krashniak*, Ehud Lamm

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A prevalent narrative locates the discovery of the statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean in the work of Francis Galton. It is claimed that after 1885, Galton came to explain the fact that offspring deviated less from the mean value of the population than their parents did as a population-level statistical phenomenon and not as the result of the processes of inheritance. Arguing against this claim, we show that Galton did not explain regression towards mediocrity statistically, and did not give up on his ideas regarding an inheritance process that caused offspring to revert to the mean. While the common narrative focuses almost exclusively on Galton's statistics, our arguments emphasize the anthropological and biological questions that Galton addressed. Galton used regression towards mediocrity to support the claim that some biological types were more stable than others and hence were resistant to evolutionary change. This view had implications concerning both natural selection and eugenics. The statistical explanation attributed to Galton appeared later, during the biometrician-mutationist debate in the early 1900s. It was in the context of this debate and specifically by the biometricians, that the development of the statistical explanation was originally attributed to Galton.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-19
Number of pages14
JournalStudies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A
Volume86
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • Evolutionary saltationism
  • Francis Galton
  • Inheritance and statistics
  • Regression to the mean
  • Stability of types

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