TY - JOUR

T1 - Francis Galton's regression towards mediocrity and the stability of types

AU - Krashniak, Adam

AU - Lamm, Ehud

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

PY - 2021/4

Y1 - 2021/4

N2 - A prevalent narrative locates the discovery of the statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean in the work of Francis Galton. It is claimed that after 1885, Galton came to explain the fact that offspring deviated less from the mean value of the population than their parents did as a population-level statistical phenomenon and not as the result of the processes of inheritance. Arguing against this claim, we show that Galton did not explain regression towards mediocrity statistically, and did not give up on his ideas regarding an inheritance process that caused offspring to revert to the mean. While the common narrative focuses almost exclusively on Galton's statistics, our arguments emphasize the anthropological and biological questions that Galton addressed. Galton used regression towards mediocrity to support the claim that some biological types were more stable than others and hence were resistant to evolutionary change. This view had implications concerning both natural selection and eugenics. The statistical explanation attributed to Galton appeared later, during the biometrician-mutationist debate in the early 1900s. It was in the context of this debate and specifically by the biometricians, that the development of the statistical explanation was originally attributed to Galton.

AB - A prevalent narrative locates the discovery of the statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean in the work of Francis Galton. It is claimed that after 1885, Galton came to explain the fact that offspring deviated less from the mean value of the population than their parents did as a population-level statistical phenomenon and not as the result of the processes of inheritance. Arguing against this claim, we show that Galton did not explain regression towards mediocrity statistically, and did not give up on his ideas regarding an inheritance process that caused offspring to revert to the mean. While the common narrative focuses almost exclusively on Galton's statistics, our arguments emphasize the anthropological and biological questions that Galton addressed. Galton used regression towards mediocrity to support the claim that some biological types were more stable than others and hence were resistant to evolutionary change. This view had implications concerning both natural selection and eugenics. The statistical explanation attributed to Galton appeared later, during the biometrician-mutationist debate in the early 1900s. It was in the context of this debate and specifically by the biometricians, that the development of the statistical explanation was originally attributed to Galton.

KW - Evolutionary saltationism

KW - Francis Galton

KW - Inheritance and statistics

KW - Regression to the mean

KW - Stability of types

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85099572847&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.shpsa.2020.12.008

DO - 10.1016/j.shpsa.2020.12.008

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C2 - 33965665

AN - SCOPUS:85099572847

SN - 0039-3681

VL - 86

SP - 6

EP - 19

JO - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A

JF - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A

ER -